Effect of Oral Oseltamivir on Virological Outcomes in Low-risk Adults With Influenza: A Randomized Clinical Trial
John H Beigel*, Weerawat Manosuthi, Joy Beeler, Yajing Bao, Melanie Hoppers, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Richard L Beasley, Michael Ison, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Marcelo H Losso, Nicholas Langlois, Justin Hoopes, H Clifford Lane, H Preston Holley
Background: Duration of viral shedding is a determinant of infectivity and transmissibility, but few data exist about oseltamivir's ability to alter viral shedding.
Methods: From January 2012 through October 2017, a randomized, double-blinded multicenter clinical trial was conducted in adults aged 18 - 64 years at 42 sites in Thailand, the United States, and Argentina. Participants with influenza A or B and without risk factors for complications of influenza were screened for the study. Eligible participants were randomized to receive oseltamivir 75 mg or placebo twice daily for 5 days. The primary endpoint was the percentage of participants with virus detectable by polymerase chain reaction in nasopharyngeal swab at day 3.
Results: Of 716 adults screened for the study, 558 were randomized, and 501 were confirmed to have influenza. Forty-six participants in the pilot study were excluded, and 449 of the 455 participants in the population for the primary analysis had day 3 viral shedding results. Ninety-nine (45.0%) of 220 participants in the oseltamivir arm had virus detected at day 3 compared with 131 (57.2%) of 229 participants in the placebo arm (absolute difference of -12.2% [-21.4%, -3.0%], P =; .010). The median time to alleviation of symptoms was 79.0 hours for the oseltamivir arm and 84.0 hours for the placebo arm (P =; .34) in those with confirmed influenza infection.
Conclusions: Oseltamivir decreased viral shedding in this low-risk population. However, in the population enrolled in this study, it did not significantly decrease the time to resolution of clinical symptoms.
Clinical Infectious Diseases ปี 2563, ปีที่: ฉบับที่ หน้า