A Comparison of Two Dosing Regimens of Zidovudine in Thai Adults with Early Symptomatic HIV Infection. Conducting Clinical HIV Trials in South-East Asia
Phanuphak P, Grayson ML, Sirivichayakul S, Suwanagool S, Ruxrungtham K, Hanvanich M, Ratanasuwan W, Ubolyam S, Hughes MD, Wanke CA, Hammer SM
Infectious Diseases and Clinical Epidemiology Department, Monash Medical Centre, 246 Clayton Road, Clayton, Vic 3168. Email:Lindsay.Grayson@med.monash.edu.au
AIM: To compare the clinical and immunological efficacy, and tolerance of two dosage regimens of zidovudine (ZDV) in an adult Thai population with early symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and to identify important clinical issues associated with conducting HIV trials in South-East Asia. METHODS: HIV-infected Thai adults, with early symptomatic HIV disease and CD4 lymphocyte counts less than 400/mm3, who were managed in the infectious diseases clinics at two university teaching hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand, were enrolled in a randomised, open-label, dose-regimen comparison trial of ZDV. Two oral ZDV dosing regimens: regimen A, 100 mg tid+200 mg nocte (ZDV-A) vs regimen B, 250 mg bid (ZDV-B) were compared. The main outcome measures were: 1. Clinical efficacy: rate of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or death. 2. Immunologic efficacy: changes in CD4 lymphocyte numbers compared to baseline; rate of decline of CD4 lymphocyte numbers to less than 100/mm3. 3. Toxicity, as defined by clinical symptomatology and laboratory parameters. RESULTS: Two hundred and four patients were enrolled (103 ZDV-A; 101 ZDV-B) of whom 195 were followed beyond baseline. Patients were typical of those encountered with HIV in Thailand: mean age 33 years; 89% male; 88% heterosexual HIV acquisition; mean baseline CD4 lymphocyte count 241/mm3. Follow-up while on therapy was comparable for the two groups (mean+/-SD): 533+/-236 days (ZDV-A) vs 592+/-210 days (ZDV-B). One hundred and eleven patients (57%; 51 ZDV-A; 60 ZDV-B) were treated for at least 22 months (669+/-30 days). Clinical and immunological outcomes for ZDV-A and ZDV-B, including rate of progression to AIDS or death, development of non-AIDS-defining opportunistic infections, mean changes in CD4 lymphocyte numbers/mm3, difference in area under the CD4:time distribution curve and difference in the rate of decline of CD4 lymphocyte numbers to less than 100/mm3, were not significantly different. The presence of oral hairy leukoplakia or unintentional weight loss of 10-20% at enrollment were significantly associated with the later development of AIDS (p=0.03 and 0.04, respectively). ZDV-associated toxicity was similar for both regimens. Maintaining protocol adherence and appropriate clinical follow-up emerged as important practical issues. CONCLUSION: In Thai adults, ZDV 100 mg tid+200 mg nocte and ZDV 250 mg bid have similar clinical and immunological efficacy. Rates of ZDV toxicity are comparable to those reported in non-Asian populations. Despite limitations in medical care access and maintaining long-term follow-up, successful trials of antiretroviral agents are feasible in South-East Asia and multi-drug treatment trials should be pursued in appropriate institutions.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ปี 2543, February ปีที่: 30 ฉบับที่ 1 หน้า 11-20
Asia, AIDS, Thailand, HIV, Efficacy, clinical, Zidovudine, therapy, Toxicity