Diabetes-Specific Complete Smoothie Formulas Improve Postprandial Glycemic Response in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Individuals: A Randomized Crossover Trial
Pichanun Mongkolsucharitkul, Bonggochpass Pinsawas, Apinya Surawit, Tanyaporn Pongkunakorn, Thamonwan Manosan, Suphawan Ophakas, Sophida Suta, Sureeporn Pumeiam, กรภัทร มยุระสาคร*
Siriraj Population Health and Nutrition Research Group, Department of Research Group and Research Network, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand
This study aimed to compare newly developed diabetes-specific complete smoothie formulas with a standard diabetes-specific nutritional formula (DSNF) regarding their effects on glucose homeostasis, insulin levels, and lipid metabolism in obese type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover study with 41 obese T2DM participants to compare two developed diabetes-specific complete smoothie formulas, a soy-based regular smoothie (SM) and a smoothie with modified carbohydrate content (SMMC), with the standard DSNF, Glucerna. Glycemic and insulin responses were assessed after the participants randomly consumed 300 kilocalories of each formulation on three separate days with a 7-day gap between. Postprandial effects on glycemic control, insulin levels, and lipid metabolism were measured. SMMC resulted in a significantly lower glucose area under the curve (AUC0-240) compared to Glucerna and SM (p < 0.05 for both). Insulin AUC0-240 after SMMC was significantly lower than that after SM and Glucerna (p < 0.05). During the diets, the suppression of NEFA was more augmented on SM, resulting in a less total AUC0-240 of NEFA compared to the SMMC diet (p < 0.05). C-peptide AUC0-240 after SMMC was significantly lower than that after Glucerna (p < 0.001). Conversely, glucagon AUC0-240 after SMMC was significantly higher than that after SM and Glucerna (p < 0.05). These results highlight SMMC as the better insulin-sensitive formula, potentially achieved through increased insulin secretion or a direct reduction in glucose absorption. The unique composition of carbohydrates, amino acids, and fats from natural ingredients in the smoothies may contribute to these positive effects, making them promising functional foods for managing diabetes and obesity.
Nutrients ปี 2567, January ปีที่: 16 ฉบับที่ 3 หน้า 1-16
Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, medical food, linical nutrition, meal replacement, smoothie drink